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Amidst shifting geopolitical equations in the Asia-Pacific region, US Ambassador to India Kenneth Juster has called for forging a robust strategic economic partnership with India and pitched for enhanced defence collaboration across the spectrum.In a defining speech on India-US relations, organised by Carnegie India and the US Embassy in New Delhi, Mr Juster projected the growing importance of India-US ties and the need to “build upon this foundation in a flexible but purposive manner”.The US ambassador’s big-picture presentation of India-US relations comes ahead of a likely meeting later this month between India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi and US President Donald Trump on the sidelines of the World Economic Forum in the Swiss resort of Davos.

Economic ties through strategic lens

Proposing a Free Trade Agreement with India in future, the ambassador pointed out that India could be an alternative for US companies exiting China. He also assured that US President Trump’s call of “America first” and Indian Prime Minister Modi’s “Make in India” initiatives are not “incompatible” since mutually beneficial investment in each other’s markets increases the prospects of economic interaction and a robust trade leading to the technological collaboration and creation of jobs. While India-US trade has grown from $20 billion in 2001 to $115 billion in 2016, the trade deficit in favour of India stands at $30 billion and many US companies are unhappy with the protective barriers put in place by India.

“Increased heft in our economic relationship would necessarily provide a broader and deeper, long-term U.S. commitment to India and the Indo-Pacific region. This would complement our growing defence and counter-terrorism partnership, and moderate any policy differences that might arise along the way,” he said.

Scaling up military ties

As India-US defence partnership continues to evolve, the ambassador expressed the US’ willingness to post military liaison officers at each other’s combatant commands. Under the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) that both countries had signed two years back their militaries have access to the designated military facilities on either side for the purpose of refuelling and replenishment.On the question of Afghanistan, Mr Juster clarified the importance of Pakistan in bringing peace to the country but also firmly declared that the US in no way would tolerate cross-border terrorism or safe havens to terror outfits.

Affirming the US support for India’s bid for membership of Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), the ambassador welcomed India’s entry to the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and Wassenaar Arrangements and expected India to join the Australia Group on chemical and biological weapons. With India’s growing defence needs, the US seeks to go beyond its role as a supplier and hopes to assist India in building indigenous defence base and capabilities.“With that in mind, perhaps in the next year, we can announce major agreements enabling cooperation in areas such as intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance platforms; fighter aircraft production; and the co-development of next generation systems, including a Future Vertical Lift platform or Advanced Technology Ground Combat Vehicles,” he said.

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us-trumm-modi-manilaMANILA: Amid the mutating strategic landscape in Asia and the new geostrategic configuration of Quadrilateral as a backdrop, India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi held wide-ranging talks with US President Donald Trump in Manila that focused on bolstering India’s military capability and enhancing strategic connect in the Indo-Pacific region.

The Modi-Trump meeting at a glitzy hotel in Manila on November 13 was watched closely in the region amid a collective effort by the leaders of ASEAN and East Asia Summit countries to shape an inclusive regional architecture and China’s declared ambition to be a global power.

With paparazzi frenziedly clicking away, a beaming Mr Modi, with Mr Trump seated by his side at Mindoro Room of the Sofitel Plaza hotel, struck an upbeat note on the future of India-US relationship, which has acquired a new bounce under the Trump presidency.

Modi-Trump bonding

The meeting between Mr Modi and Mr Trump lasted for 52 minutes, much beyond the allotted time, signalling that despite a slew of back-to-back meetings both leaders had serious business to discuss. “There was a broad review of strategic landscape in Asia,” India’s Foreign Secretary S. Jaishankar told reporters at Manila Marriott hotel, where PM Modi with his entourage is staying.

The key strategic issues included the North Korea nuclear programme, the state of affairs in the Gulf and the Middle East region, proliferation and proliferation linkages and terrorism, said Mr Jaishankar. The enhanced India-US cooperation in Afghanistan and consequences of violence in the Rakhine state in Myanmar also figured prominently in discussions.

“It was an evolving conversation with the Trump administration. It was a cordial, constructive and comfortable conversation,” he said.

Mutual admiration club

us-trump-modi-manila1In his opening remarks before he began talks with Mr Trump, Mr Modi spoke about deepening and expanding India-US relations and underlined that the two countries can work together not just bilaterally, but on an entire spectrum of cross-cutting issues for the benefit of the region, the world and the mankind.

He lauded Mr Trump for speaking glowingly and hopefully about India-US relations at various fora and stressed that India will try to live up to high expectations placed on this strategic partnership.

Mr Trump was all praise for Mr Modi, suggesting a deepening personal chemistry between the two leaders. “He’s become a friend of ours and a great gentleman doing a fantastic job in bringing around lots of factions in India — bringing them all together,” he said. “It’s a lot of good reports coming out of India. So I want to congratulate you,” he added.

“The relations between India and the United States are growing very rapidly with a great deal of speed. And they’re getting deeper and very comprehensive,” said Mr Modi.

“And I also feel that and that these relations between India and the U.S., they are not just for our mutual interests, but they go much beyond that. And we are working together for the interest of the future of Asia and for humanity as a whole in the world,” he said.

Quad & Indo-Pacific Connect

Bonhomie and backslapping apart, the overarching thrust of the discussions was on spurring the rise of India as a major global power and enhanced coordination in the Asia-Pacific, with an eye on containing China.

us-trump-modi-manila2There was no explicit discussion on the Quad between Mr Modi and Mr Trump, but clearly it’s an idea whose time has come. The White House read-out on the Trump-Modi meeting underlined “shared commitment to a free and open Indo-Pacific region.” “The two leaders discussed the comprehensive strategic partnership between the United States and India and their shared commitment to a free and open Indo-Pacific region.” “They pledged to enhance their cooperation as Major Defense Partners, resolving that two of the world’s great democracies should also have the world’s greatest militaries,” said the White House.

The reference to bolstering military was a veiled signal to China, an emerging hegemon in the region. India was, however, circumspect and studiously denied that the Quad or the India-US partnership was directed at China. “If you look at diplomacy in the world, diplomacy is not just bilateral or multilateral, there is also a lot of space in between,” was all Jaishankar would say, indicating that quadrilateral and plurilateral groupings are the new normal in international relations and not much should be read into it.

From being a problematic and contested proposal a decade ago, the notion of Quadrilateral dialogue among leading maritime democracies of the region has gathered pace in the last few days, and translated into the first meeting of officials of the quad nations in Manila on November 12.

“They agreed that a free, open, prosperous and inclusive Indo-Pacific region serves the long-term interests of all countries in the region and of the world at large,” said a terse statement by India’s ministry of external affairs. All the quad countries have denied any China containment, but the Quad could emerge an influential pressure group in curbing China’s assertive postures in the region.

The days to come will reveal the scope of the Quad, but what is certain is that Trump is set to promote the rise of India as a balancing power in the Indo-Pacific region, thereby tightening strategic embrace between the world’s oldest and largest democracies.

Despite initial anxieties in New Delhi about the course of India-US relations under the Trump presidency, largely due to the maverick American leader’s reputation for policy flip-flops, the partnership has acquired an added strategic dimension in the last few months. Mr Modi’s visit to the US in June proved to be quite successful as he not only forged personal chemistry with Mr Trump, but also succeeded in getting the US’ support for India’s concerns on One Belt, One Road and Pakistan-based terrorists.

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trump-modi-manila-bigMANILA: With the new geostrategic alphabet of Quadrilateral shaping up as a backdrop, India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi met US President Donald Trump at a glitzy hotel in Manila to map an ambitious agenda for enhanced India-US strategic partnership in the Indo-Pacific region.
The Modi-Trump meeting is easily the show-stealer at the ASEAN summit in Manila as the region, specially China, will be watching closely how the world’s two largest democracies plan to deepen their connect in this strategically located region.
With paparazzi frenziedly clicking away, a beaming Mr Modi, with Mr Trump seated by his side at the Sofitel Plaza hotel, struck an upbeat note on the future of India-US relationship, which has acquired a new bounce under the Trump presidency.
In his opening remarks before he began talks with Mr Trump, Mr Modi spoke about deepening and expanding India-US relations and underlined that the two countries can work together not just bilaterally, but on an entire spectrum of cross-cutting issues for the benefit of the region, the world and the mankind.
He lauded Mr Trump for speaking glowingly and hopefully about India-US relations at various for and stressed that India will try to live up to high expectations placed on this strategic partnership.
The two leaders are expected to discuss a host of bilateral, regional and global issues, but the focus will be on their joint plans to forge bilateral maritime cooperation and the quadrilateral dialogue between India, Japan, the US and Australia.
From being a problematic and contested proposal a decade ago, the notion of Quadrilateral dialogue among leading maritime democracies of the region has gathered pace in the last few days, and translated into the first meeting of officials of the quad nations in Manila on November 12.

(Manish Chand is CEO and Editor-in-Chief of India Writes Network and India and World, a pioneering magazine focused on international affairs. He is in Manila for the 31st ASEAN and related summits)

 

Washington: Prime Minister Narendra Modi shakes hands with US, Secretary of State, Rex W. Tillerson in Washington DC, USA on Monday.   PTI Photo/PIB (PTI6_26_2017_000255B)

Ahead of his maiden visit to India, US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson has projected the US as the reliable partner India needs and positioned New Delhi and Washington as two “two bookends of stability” in the Indo-Pacific region which is being challenged by China’s “irresponsible” rise.

Courting India ahead of his first official visit to New Delhi next week, Mr Tillerson projected an upbeat trajectory of the India-US relations that have been on an upswing ever since President Donald Trump assumed office earlier this year. In a defining foreign policy speech at an American think tank, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Mr. Tillerson said that the US is “determined to dramatically deepen ways” to build an “ambitious partnership” with India, particularly with an eye on the Indo-Pacific region and China, which will have “far-reaching implications for the next 100 years.”

Outlining his administration’s India policy and echoing Mr. Trump’s oft expressed “true friend” sentiment towards India, he said, “In this period of uncertainty and angst, India needs a reliable partner on the world stage. The United States is that partner.”

Mr. Tillerson’s speech focussed on the centrality of the Indo-Pacific region in the 21st century and the importance of stepping up collaboration with India so that the two nations can “serve as the eastern and western beacons of the Indo-Pacific”. “We need to collaborate with India… so that it does not become a region of disorder, conflict, and predatory economics,” said the top US diplomat taking a jab at China’s growing activities in the region.

Comparing India and China: What’s cooking?

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“The very international order that has benefited India’s rise — and that of many others — is increasingly under strain. China, while rising alongside India, has done so less responsibly, at times undermining the international, rules-based order even as countries like India operate within a framework that protects other nations’ sovereignty,” he said calling out China’s provocative actions in the South China Sea.

Answering a question on predatory economics that countries need to be alert about, Mr. Tillerson elaborated: “We have watched the activities and actions of others in the region, in particular China, and the financing mechanisms it brings to many of these countries which result in saddling them with enormous levels of debt.” He also signalled that a quiet conversation had already begun with countries in the region to create alternative financing mechanisms. “We will not be able to compete with the kind of terms that China offers, but countries have to decide: What are they willing to pay to secure their sovereignty and their future control of their economies? And we’ve had those discussions with them,” he said, in a veiled reference to China’s ambitious One Belt, One Road project.

Underscoring how the United States and India are increasingly global partners with growing strategic convergence, Mr. Tillerson said that “Indians and Americans don’t just share an affinity for democracy. We share a vision of the future.” While Mr. Tillerson will be travelling to South Asia to push his administration’s new policy, President Trump will embark on a whirlwind trip to Japan, China, South Korea besides Southeast Asian countries like Vietnam and Philippines next month.

Will India play the game?

Going by Mr Tillerson’s comments, it would appear that the US is pushing for a renewed China containment strategy, with India as a key balancer against China’s assertiveness. Should India offer to be part of this strategy? Opinion is divided among India’s strategic establishment. Meera Shankar, India’s former ambassador to the US, has struck a note of caution. “It’s a culmination of the trend of strengthening strategic partnerships in the region by the US to balance China,” Mrs Shankar told India Writes Network. “A stronger India will ipso facto act as a balancer, without getting into overt containment strategy,” she said. The US should help to bolster India’s rise and capabilities, she said.

 US-Pakistan: Uneasy partnership

Mr. Tillerson will also be travelling to Pakistan and a few other countries in the region during his upcoming visit to South Asia. Talking about Pakistan, he said, “Pakistan, too, is an important US partner in South Asia. Our relationships in the region stand on their own merits.” However, he added that Washington expects Islamabad to take more decisive steps against terror groups within its borders. Pakistan has been at the receiving end of the US administration’s ire in the last few months when Mr. Trump laid out his Afghanistan strategy and pulled up Islamabad for not doing enough to rein in terrorist groups operating from its territory even as he envisaged a greater role for India in Afghanistan.

Tillerson’s India Mantra (In His Own Words)

  • Our nations (India–US) are two bookends of stability – on either side of the globe – standing for greater security and prosperity for our citizens and people around the world.

 

  • The United States seeks constructive relations with China, but we will not shrink from China’s challenges to the rules-based order and where China subverts the sovereignty of neighbouring countries and disadvantages the US and our friends.

 

  • India and the United States should be in the business of equipping other countries to defend their sovereignty, build greater connectivity, and have a louder voice in a regional architecture that promotes their interests and develops their economies.

 

  • India can also serve as a clear example of a diverse, dynamic, and pluralistic country to others – a flourishing democracy in the age of global terrorism. The sub-continent is the birthplace of four of the world’s major religions.

 

  • We expect Pakistan to take decisive action against terrorist groups based within their own borders that threaten their own people and the broader region. In doing so, Pakistan furthers stability and peace for itself and its neighbours, and improves its own international standing.

 

  • When our (India-US) militaries conduct joint exercises, we send a powerful message as to our commitment to protecting the global commons and defending our people.

 

  • It is time we act on our vision of a free and open Indo-Pacific, supported and protected by two strong pillars of democracy – the United States and India.
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